Monday, May 25, 2020

Dancing with Death †an Inquiry Into Retribution and Capital Punishment - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 6 Words: 1862 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2019/03/05 Category Law Essay Level High school Tags: Capital Punishment Essay Did you like this example? Dancing with Death an Inquiry Into Retribution and Capital Punishment The persistent hum of a fluorescent bulb fails to drown the sound of your heartbeat, your thoughts, the faint weeping of your mother. A warm sensation travels through cold veins, there is no return now. Perhaps a lifetime in supermax would have been worse, but perhaps you should not have slaughtered that girl. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Dancing with Death – an Inquiry Into Retribution and Capital Punishment" essay for you Create order Did you? She wanted it. Where are you? The lights become fuzzy and your muscles contract. Helplessly and vigorously you writhe, like a great predator in the captivity of his hunter. Existence becomes pain until you cease to exist, and find liberation from mortal responsibility. The United States government saw to the deprivation of your life, among twenty other lives in 2018, through capital punishment. This permanent mode of retribution and subsequent safety of the general population demands controversy throughout the history of the American criminal justice system. In some cohorts, the life sentence suffices as just repercussion for dangerous inmates. In others, capital punishment serves as a repulsive deterrent for future offenders. The heated debate over the necessity of execution or lack thereof takes years of statistical studies, special cases, and public opinion into question. Death is not a gentle act, and thus requires due support and justification from those who deliver it. Society asserts that capital punishment is an effective method of deterrence and crime prevention in order to justify their own dark desire for retribution. From the gallows of Puritan Massachusetts to the execution chamber in Huntsville, Texas, capital punishment holds onto its harrowing place in the American criminal justice system with fervor. The colonists, though more conservative than England, liberally dealt the maximum punishment for violent offenders or repeated offenders of lesser crimes. Murder, rape, witchcraft, and incorrect religious affiliation sent dozens of citizens to death, often with little contention from the masses (Malik 695). Biblical text and other archaic tradition provided enough reasoning to society at the time. People widely accepted the exchange of bloodshed humanity partook in, as it was the way things always were. In the years after the revolution, â€Å"America evolved from its predominantly religious beginnings† and citizens began to challenge the nature of criminal execution (Malik 696). The death penalty now exclusively applied to murders, rapists, and traitors to the nation. Sentiments in opposition to execution gained strength until the abolition of public hanging practices. In the 1880’s a number of states declared hanging as barbaric and thus introduced the electric chair. The electrocution execution of Jesse Tefaro highlights the occurrence of human error in any method of capital punishment. In the case of Tefaro, an improper head sponge was put in place to conduct the electrical charge to the brain, resulting in â€Å"six-inch flames [blazing] from his headand three more rounds of jolts to stop his heart entirely† (Hodgkinson 161). One the electric chair became too violent for the taste of America, death by asphyxiation became the popular route in the chamber. Donald Harding of Arizona was given cyanide tablets to induce suffocation in the Arizona prison. Witnesses recounted seeing Harding’s â€Å"body turn from red to purpleas violent spasms and jerks† lasted nearly seven minutes (Hodgkinson 163). The usage and evolution of this process gradually became focused on the public interest, rather than that of the justice system or the victims it aims to honor. Throughout the twentieth century, new methods of execution leading to the modern chemical injection were developed to make the process â€Å"less visually disturbing to onlookers† than the ways of old (Malik 700). Strong sentiments in opposition to the death and violence of the Vietnam War impacted opinion on capital punishment and drove support to an all- time low. Formative events and influential Supreme Court cases such as Furman v. Georgia which suspended all executions for a brief period, disturbed the benumbed United States enough to reevaluate cruel and arbitrary aspects of the matter (Anderson 845). Modern dialogue suggests that this interest in reform stems from a place of guilt in man upon realizing the egoistic nature of vengeance. Three main proponents of capital punishment are deterrence, retention and retribution. The relationship between deterrence and retribution examines the issues societal justification of the death penalty presents. Deterrence refers to the action of preventing aspiring offenders from committing heinous crimes by ‘making an example’ of inmates on death row. Retired judge and former federal prosecutor James P. Gray comments that premeditated or paid murders are the only circumstances in which lethal injection has the potential to change the killer’s mind. The vast majority of homicides occur in situations that are unplanned, violent, and too quick to weigh the consequences to come (Gray 257). Homicide committed in kidnapping, gang related, or otherwise premeditated scenarios are typically in the hands of a mentally ill individual, an individual who believes they have nothing to lose, or by an individual who feels their reasoning outweighs any risk of penalty. Hubris i n the heart of killers creates a sense of invincibility against the law, and it is a deep rot in the psyche that cannot be exterminated by syringe. Philosophical aspects of good versus evil action aside, does lethal injection serve as an effective deterrent for murder? Advocates for criminal execution are quick to claim that deterrence rates affirm the fatal practice is â€Å"an uniquely effective deterrent to murder† compared to life sentences (Lamperti 1). This common argument stumps the uninformed interlocutor, who ought to know that the statistics are in their corner. Professor John Lamperti of Dartmouth College asserts that after all, â€Å"factual evidence can and should [influence]† legislation concerning American lives. (Lamperti 1). Without the ability to carry out a controlled experiment on murder, researchers must take decades of data from the United States Census Bureau and retroactively determine the relationship between providence of the death penalty and its effect on murder rates. States with and without the death penalty in each geographical region were studied from 1920 to 1958 by then renowned sociologist Thorsten Sellin . The data revealed that homicide trends were mostly indistinguishable from any state. Another study conducted on homicide trends analyzed data from 1973 to 1984, and astoundly suggested that states with the death penalty experienced higher rates of murder than their non-executing counterparts (Lamperti 3-5). As more data is introduced, researchers continue to conclude that capital punishment shows no association or causal relationship to homicide decrease. Such conclusion cannot account for murders that never took place as a result of deterrence, however it can support the claim that any deterrent effect holds an insignificant impact. Such conclusion also challenges the pro-death penalty side further. If capital punishment does not serve as a statistically effective deterrent of murder, what drives its preservation? The third proponent of execution by lethal injection, retribution, is the most complex of the set. Retribution is the deliverance of punishment as consequence of wrongdoing against an individual or institution. Capital punishment is the highest degree of retribution in the justice system and is thus exclusively enacted on the most animalistic convicts. A violent crimes meets a violent end. Consider the point-and-blame American public and the historical journey from gruesome spectacles to private injection chambers. The process was shaped to become more humane to the general population who imposed the legislation (Radelet 43-46). In this way, Americans find it easier to turn their heads from the moral and ethical implications of the death penalty. If the general population comprehends the cruel reality of capital punishment, it is plausible that precarious arguments like deterrent effectiveness merely acts as a proxy for pure relishment found in revenge. Two perspectives of retribution arise; that which satisfies the victim’s family and that which satisfies a greater human depravity. In early civilization it was only logistical to impose equivalent pain onto the perpetrator to not defame the deceased. The ancient statues of vengeance upheld one’s family honor and preserved justice. In the present day the argument supporting the death penalty stresses the pain experienced by the victim’s family that will go unresolved without proper retribution. Closure is subjective for each grieving individual, especially for the loved ones of a murder victim. The value of the human life cannot be empirically or monetarily be measured. It is not replaceable or comparable to the life of another human being. Despite the most solid pro-death penalty arguments uttered in the marketplace of ideas today, no noose, no firing squad, no chair, no gas, or no chemical can bring the victim back into the world. Most inmates on death row spen d years in custody awaiting appeals, trials and retrials, all of which are emotionally and financially exhausting for the family on the other side. After years of depressing undulation, not â€Å"much satisfaction [arises] when the object of one’s hatred simply goes to sleephooked up to a needle† at their end (Gray 257). Many families would recover better knowing that the offender is locked away, left to rot, never to hurt another soul. When a family does not want to pursue the death penalty the legal system encourages follow through for the sake of the victim’s honor. Some may chop it up to a final display of respect, others just become engulfed by the American standard of violence. Is this cathartic? The family must carry the burden of tragedy, the killer is liberated from human law. Conclusion How can we, as a nation, strive to be the â€Å"champion of human rights if [we are] so at odds† with an issue that potentially brings us to destruction (Gray 258)? The United States criminal justice system views retribution as a display of power for the government and humanity itself. Whether death comes from a jawbone or a freakish curation of pancuronium bromide and potassium chloride, it disturbs the order of nature and man’s place within it. Deterrence in the broader sense can be extended to justify actions that suppress civil progress and violate constitutional rights for societal good. Even though capital punishment is solely perpetuated by the benefits of public safety, criticisms claim that wrongful executions contribute to racial and class bias in the country. Studies discussed in â€Å"Age, Period, and Cohort Effects on Death Penalty Attitudes in The United States, 1974-2014† show that the proportion of executed inmates is overwhelmingly African American or Hispanic when compared to the number of white criminals who do not see the chamber or otherwise get off death row. A country that has the power to exercise judgement of who lives and dies as if no other form of rehabilitation or ramification is feasible influences constituents to indulge in their selfish desires and hold lesser regard for life. People want their pain to matter. They know that nothing will take it away, so they must witness the suffering of another to receive a sense of validity. There is no due justification for rape and murder, why would there be proper reasoning for an ultimate hurrah of violence? It is aestheticization of violence in our culture. It is a self serving need to survive and to be feared. Let the offender rot in prison, burn in hell, or slip into nothingness– lest you find the everlasting stain of blood on your hands as well.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Information On Promotional Opportunities Advertisements

Information on promotional opportunities. †¢ Advertisements: many gyms center allegation hilarious fees for the first time random visiting and when someone makes an examination at gym and proposal new consumer a free 5 times to visit pan to come down and attempt the facilities. †¢ Client functions: when exercise, player practice with expert and will receive the experiences from experts such as consideration demand, attitudes, tasks, special competences and liability, as well as practice with expert who will not arrive to personal related which accident the formation and allowance of experiences credit. For example: during the practice period time, player should not be under the command of alcohol or drug which negative impact the†¦show more content†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¢ Productlaunches: during day’s follows event, it is important that conduct the energy for new production. Results with target groups and command those who displayed excite in the production. On the other hand, timing a release can mean almost the difference between achievement and collapse. Therefore, stay aware of the best and worth times of the year to release production. For example: the Christmas and New Year months are ambitious because almost people are on vacation. †¢ web pages: shows almost information that relate and also the processes of these course existed in business and the advantage of images or pictures details condition to build an quality connection by combined valuable, afford free tips and advantageous information and as well as shows directly google maps for someone who easier to find the location. A statement of your research objectives/hypotheses. This research report aims to identify the fitness industry’s John’s Gym This research is to find out the opportunity for John’s Gym to join into the fitness industry. As per the industry report, it can tell there’s an intensive competition among the industry over 50% of the market is shared by large franchise company. A research will be conducted in order to help the company to make up an effective marketing plan and help the company to positioning themselves into a most advantage position in the market. Base on the research, a marketing plan is to be made for below objectives: - Providing

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Issues of Managing Virtual

Question: Discuss about the Report on dealing with issues of leading and managing virtual teams. Answer: Report on dealing with issues of leading and managing virtual teams As the virtual teams are linked primarily through the means of technologies, their security needs to be addressed. This issues attains primary position in terms of ensuring their wellbeing. Distance plays an important factor in terms of assessing the availability of the team members (Hoch and Kozlowski 2014). Here, GPRS trackers can be an effective solutions regarding tracking the location of the team members. However, most of the employees are unaware of the functionalities of virtual team, which can nullify the efforts of the personnel towards bringing innovation and creativity in the workplace. Language difficulties are a major issue for the virtual teams. This is because most of the microphones lack effective sound quality. Because of this, the instructions do not reach to the team members properly. The result of this is the achievement of negative outcomes. Along with this, both sides the facial expressions cannot be seen, which results in the failure to gain an insight into the approach of the team members and the personnel (Morgan, Paucar and Wright 2014). This reflects the issue of communication gap, stalling the efficiency in the business activities. Cultural differences are also an issue in terms of preserving the individual sentiments of the employees. Typical components of this are different grasping skills, varying communication skills, considerations while decision-making and different approached towards the deadline of the tasks. Cultural differences need to be dealt rationality, as one wrong step can hurt the individual sentiments of the employees. Partially towards the employees who can take spontaneous decisions can lead to conflicts, which can stall the productivity (Krumm et al. 2016). Different employees have different grasping skills, due to which they have different perceptions towards the deadlines of the tasks. Long deadline tasks makes the employees feel that they can do the work in a relaxed manner. On the other hand, deadline is a fear factor for the employees, who have slow grasping skills. Therefore, assessment of the capability of the candidates is necessary for allotting the tasks and setting the deadline. Meeting is appropriate in terms of providing a platform to the employees for voicing out their opinions regarding the issues they are facing while executing the allotted duties and responsibilities. However, the managers need to ensure that all of the employees get access to the meetings (Ellwart et al. 2015). This is essential in terms of gaining an insight into their specific needs, demands and requirements. Lackadaisical approach towards attending the meeting is another issue towards managing the virtual teams. If half of the team goes for meeting and half of the team goes for lunch then, the purpose of the meeting is not served. Herein, the managers role is crucial in terms of assessing the equal participation of the employees in the meetings and conferences. This would helps the managers to lead and manage the teams. Installing security software would be an efficient step in terms of ensuring the welfare of the employees. However, the managers can test the operations of the software before launching it for the employees (Breuer, Hffmeier and Hertel 2016). Hiring experts for this activity would help the personnel to avert the instances of malfunction, virus attacks and hacker interventions. Market research in this direction would help the personnel to adopt software of latest and modern designs. After assessing the effectiveness of the software, it needs to be installed in the users profile. After the installation, the managers need to take feedbacks regarding the proper functioning of the software. This can be done through the means of practical tests. Meetings can be done with the board of directors regarding innovations, which can brought into the management of the virtual teams. Minutes of the meetings can be sent to the higher authorities for gaining approval for proceeding with the developed plans (Barnwell et al. 2014). Along with this, plans need to be created also for the selection of the teams. Practical tests would be effective in terms of assessing their capability towards executing the allocated tasks. Training would enhance the preconceived skills, expertise and knowledge of the employees. Taking post training tests would help the managers to assess the capability of the employees to make practical application of the learnt skills in executing the allotted tasks. Evaluation would be crucial in terms of bringing to the forefront the drawbacks in the exposed performance. Consideration of the tools would be helpful in terms of measuring the extent to which the modifications have been made towards improving the current performance standards (Hoch and Kozlowski 2014). Maintenance of consistency in the execution of evaluation would help in bringing modifications in the management of the virtual teams. References Barnwell, D., Nedrick, S., Rudolph, E., Sesay, M. and Wellen, W., 2014. Leadership of international and virtual project teams.International Journal of Global Business,7(2), p.1. Breuer, C., Hffmeier, J. and Hertel, G., 2016. Does trust matter more in virtual teams? A meta-analysis of trust and team effectiveness considering virtuality and documentation as moderators.Journal of Applied Psychology,101(8), p.1151. Ellwart, T., Happ, C., Gurtner, A. and Rack, O., 2015. Managing information overload in virtual teams: Effects of a structured online team adaptation on cognition and performance.European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology,24(5), pp.812-826. Hoch, J.E. and Kozlowski, S.W., 2014. Leading virtual teams: Hierarchical leadership, structural supports, and shared team leadership.Journal of applied psychology,99(3), p.390. Krumm, S., Kanthak, J., Hartmann, K. and Hertel, G., 2016. What does it take to be a virtual team player? The knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics required in virtual teams.Human Performance,29(2), pp.123-142. Morgan, L., Paucar-Caceres, A. and Wright, G., 2014. Leading effective global virtual teams: The consequences of methods of communication.Systemic Practice and Action Research,27(6), pp.607-624.

Saturday, April 11, 2020

Polar Bear Crisis free essay sample

Bear Crisis In May 2008, the U. S listed the polar bear as a  threatened species  under the  Endangered Species Act. The Arctic is one of the most discussed on climate change, due to the fact that warming is greatest there and because what happens in the Arctic has the can eventually impact the rest of the Earth. So far, not only has it affected the way the ice is melting and the weather is changing, but it is mainly affecting the animals that are living there (for example, polar bears). Although, there are many environmentalists, and companies tried to solve, or at least help the situation (like Coca-Cola and WWF), the problem is not getting any better. As sea ice is being reduced in the area, the polar bears basis for survival is being threatened, said John Laird, WWFs Nunavut regional conservation director. The sea ice is melting earlier in the spring which is sending the polar bears to land earlier without them having developed as much fat reserves for the ice free season. We will write a custom essay sample on Polar Bear Crisis or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page By the end of the summer they are skinny bears, which in the worst case can affect their ability to reproduce. Also, The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service says that, . . . extensive scientific studies have indicated that the increased observation of bears on land is a result of changing distribution patterns and a result of changes in the accessibility of sea ice habitat. It is crazy to think that all of these things are all being affected because we are not taking care of our planet; even though it’s happening thousands of miles away. Because we put trash on the ground, pollute the air etc. animals are being affected, especially the polar bears. Since bears use the sea ice to hunt for their main prey, seals, without the sea ice, their range are drastically reduced. On top of it all, the oil and gas development along the edges of the land mass and you have more problems. It has been said that two thirds of polar bears will disappear by 2050.

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

8 simple ways to have more meaningful conversations

8 simple ways to have more meaningful conversations Some people are born great communicators, while others might spend a lot of their time planning out what to say, and when to say it. Starting up a new conversation and being able to keep someone engaged could take a lot of mental energy if you’re an introvert. Even worse, not being able to keep the conversation going can result in you being labeled as boring, or rude. There are some major points that you need to know before engaging in a professional conversation. Knowing these tactics of conversation will not only help you in keeping an exhcnage going, but you would also be able to communicate in a more meaningful way.If you suffer from social anxiety, these helpful tips will help you manage your conversation anticipation and improve your social skills. Start to implement techniques like:1. Be an active listenerMore often than not, the main reason some of us are at a loss for words is that we’re not paying attention when another person is speaking. Always make sure you ’re actively listening in order to carry on the conversation.Listening intently to what is being said will help you in having a better understanding of the topic being discussed. As a result, you can make points in your mind and maybe pull some references to help you steer things in a direction that makes to you.2. Ask questionsThe best way of letting the other person know that you are paying attention is by asking them questions. Drill down on things that you find interesting, before forming your final thoughts and opinions regarding what is being discussed.3. Offer suggestionsIf someone comes to you for guidance, make sure you provide them with helpful advice. Try being empathetic and put yourself in the other person’s shoes. Be sure to watch that your tone is never forceful while giving suggestions because, in the end, the decision is theirs to make.4. Avoid talking about yourself too muchBeing self-centered can make a good conversation fall into the dark pits of bo redom. So, it is really important for you to talk in a general tone, discuss matters that are relatable for other people, and never make the conversation all about yourself.5. Be conciseDon’t drag out a conversation. Keep it concise, and lighthearted. Talking unnecessarily about unrelated issues can make people lose interest in a discussion.6. Try to relateAs previously mentioned, empathizing is one great way of providing another person with your thoughts and opinions. Try to place yourself in someone else’s situation and you will definitely have a much more meaningful conversation.7. Make sure language isn’t a barrierIn case you are talking to someone from a different ethnicity, cultural, or social background, always try to make yourself more understandable by molding your language. Use easy words and speak clearly.Beyond that, you can also make a real effort and learn their language to have an enriching conversation. For example, if you find yourself speaking to Japanese natives often, you might want to invest some time in learning Japanese.8. Use their name occasionallyIt’s been psychologically proven that when you call someone by their name, they listen to you more attentively. So, make use of this strategy in order to ensure that the next person is following closely what you are saying.So, start practicing these tactics now for worthwhile discussions!About the Author:Lara Smith has worked for Wall Street English for 20 years. After studying at Stanford University and subsequently doing a CELTA course, she began her career in teaching. She is obsessed with languages and currently writes blogs at Mimic Method.

Saturday, February 22, 2020

The Effects of High Heat Index on Workplace Productivity and Employee Research Paper

The Effects of High Heat Index on Workplace Productivity and Employee Health - Research Paper Example This is coupled with minimal additions from urban development that comes through absorption of heat in concrete buildings. Scientists refer to this effect as the urban heat island effect. Increase in ambient temperature humanity to more heat especially during heat seasons. This is a direct cause of unhealthy working environments. It has profound effects to people who cannot afford protective devices (Bridger 2003). This also means that companies need to incur extra costs in installing cooling gadgets including air conditioners. Effects on the working environment influence the economic and health conditions of workers. The latter causes the former effect because the human body maintains a temperature of 37 degree Celsius. However, physical activities generate metabolic heat that the body transfers through homeostasis to the external environment. The body automatically carries homeostasis functions to avoid increasing the core body temperature. Various factors maintain the balance of heat in the body including humidity, air temperature, air movement, metabolic heat, radiant temperature, and clothing. Increasing physical activities in hot working environment increases the chances of increasing the core body temperature going above 38 degrees Celsius. Other risks in such circumstances include reduced physical working ability, reduced mental task ability, dehydration, and heat exhaustion. The human body looses four liters of fluid during daily usual operations. Lost fluids are replenished by drinking of water and eating liquid food. The case is different when the body is under different condition that include sweating, diarrhea, exercising, in a different climatic temperature, and when in a different altitude. The body requires high amount of fluid to sustain normal body temperature under such circumstances. The leading causes of loss of body fluid are sweating and exercise. When the body constantly sweats, the body efficiently cools. Organs of homeostasis